Seminar №8. The Jadids movement and The Turkestan Autonomy: a century later

On March 3, the Discussion Club of “Caravan of Knowledge” hosted a discussion on the topic “The Jadids movement and The Turkestan Autonomy: a century later”.  Professor Saidakbar Agzamkhodzhaev presented his report at the event.  The talk focused on century-old events related to the movement aimed at society modernization and a change in the socio-political life of Turkestan after the Russian empire collapse.

The event also discussed the origins and the formation of the ideology of the national-territorial autonomy of Turkestan movement before and after the Soviet power establishment.  A historical overview of the Turkestan Autonomous Republic called Turkiston Mukhtoriati was given. During the seminar the following points called for a an in-depth study based on a new availability of the archives, handwritings and memoirs seen from the fight for independence perspective.

1. The emergence of the Jadids movement

  • Historical conditions for the Jadidism formation
  • Enlightenment and the issues of the Muslim society reformation in the late Х1Х-beginning of the XX centuries
  • The ideology of the Muslim movement in the early XX century

2. The goals and tasks of Jadidism

  • The educational activities of the Jadids
  • The transformation of Jadidism into a socio-political movement
  • Jadidism in Turkestan, Bukhara and Khiva

3. The development stages of Jadidism

  • The Russian Revolution period of 1905-1907
  • The influence of the ideas brought by the constitutional movement in Iran (1905-1911) and the revolution of the Young Turks (1908).
  • The inter-revolutionary years 1908-1917
  • The period between February and October 1917
  • The Soviet period

4. The growth of national self-awareness of Central Asian people and the collapse of the Russian Empire

  • The  uprising in 1916
  • The February revolution in 1917
  • “Shuroi Islomiya” (Kraymussovet) –  the organizer and coordinator of the Turkestan Muslim movement;
  • Russian and Turkestan Muslim congresses
  • The idea of ​​the Muslim unity

 5. The national print: slogans and their content

  • Al-Islokh (Reform)
  • Ulug Turkiston (Great Turkistan)
  • Hurriyat (Freedom)
  • Najot (Liberation)
  • Turon (Turan)
  • Kengash (Council)
  • Turk sozi (Turkic word)

 6. The politicization of the national liberation movement

  • The opposition between the Jadids and the Qadimists during the City Duma elections
  • The split in the national movement and the “Shuroi Ulamo” society formation
  • “Türk adami Markaziati” – the first political party
  • The idea of ​​creating “Ittifak al-Muslimin” party
  • The movement for the national-territorial autonomy of Turkestan

7. The October Revolution and the Soviet power establishment in Turkestan

  • An armed Bolshevik coup-d-etat in Tashkent
  • The third Regional Congress of Soviets and its decision to form the Council of People’s Commissars (SNK)
  • The establishment of the Soviet power on the ground

 8. Turkiston Mukhtoriati – the experience of creating a national-democratic statehood

  • Models of the state system: monarchist, autonomist, republican
  • Urgent 4th regional Muslim congress. The Turkiston Mukhtoriati formation
  • The dual power and a violent liquidation of Turkiston Mukhtoriati

 9. The Muslim resistance movement against the Soviet regime

  • The causes of the movement
  • The driving force and the movement structure
  • The leaders of the movement were Ergash, Madaminbek, Shermukhammadbek, Ibrahimbek and others
  • The international character of the movement (The Monstrov movement, Enver Pasha)
  • The fate of the Turkestan independence movement